The Hebrews See Yahweh; Moses Gets Covenants; Also, Circumcision Happens

For parts 1 and 2 of this story, see The Early Days of Moses and Moses in Egypt: Miracles, Plagues, and a Hardened Heart.

To recap a bit: Moses frees the Hebrew slaves from the Pharoah by inflicting ten plagues. They leave in a hurry, “borrowing” silver and gold jewelry, and clothes from the Egyptians, which items would later be used to build the Ark of the Covenant and its Tabernacle.

So, in the third month after the Israelites left Egypt, they arrived in the Sinai desert, where they camped “before the mount”:

Exodus 19:2 For they were departed from Reph’idim, and were come to the desert of Si’nai, and had pitched in the wilderness; and there Israel camped before the mount.
3 And Moses went up unto God, and the Lord called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel;
4 Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto myself.
5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people.

The people say they’ll follow God’s rules, so God tells Moses to go among the people and sanctify them for two days, and they must wash their clothes, and then God will appear to them on the third day. Moses is also supposed to warn the people that they must not climb the mountain:

Exodus 19:12 And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying, Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it: whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death:
13 there shall not a hand touch it, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live: when the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.

So, it came to pass…

Exodus 19:16 And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people that was in the camp trembled.
17 And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet with God; and they stood at the nether part of the mount.
18 And mount Si’nai was altogether on a smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.
19 And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a voice.
20 And the Lord came down upon mount Si’nai, on the top of the mount: and the Lord called Moses up to the top of the mount; and Moses went up.
21 And the Lord said unto Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto the Lord to gaze, and many of them perish.
22 And let the priests also, which come near to the Lord, sanctify themselves, lest the Lord break forth upon them.
23 And Moses said unto the Lord, The people cannot come up to mount Si’nai: for thou chargedst us, saying, Set bounds about the mount, and sanctify it.
24 And the Lord said unto him, Away, get thee down, and thou shalt come up, thou, and Aaron with thee: but let not the priests and the people break through to come up unto the Lord, lest he break forth upon them.

Yahweh gave the Ten Commandments to the gathered Israelites, mentioning a few points that are generally ignored when listing the Ten Commandments:

Exodus 20:1 And God spake all these words, saying,
2 I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:
5 thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
6 and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.
7 Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
8 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
9 Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work:
10 but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:
11 for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
12 Honor thy father and thy mother that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.
13 Thou shalt not kill.
14 Thou shalt not commit adultery.
15 Thou shalt not steal.
16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbor’s.

Then the frightened people begged Moses to speak to them on Yahweh’s behalf, rather than have Yahweh speak to them directly.

Exodus 20:18 And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the noise of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and when the people saw it, they removed, and stood afar off.
19 And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear: but let not God speak with us, lest we die.
20 And Moses said unto the people, Fear not: for God is come to prove you, and that his fear may be before your faces, that ye sin not.
21 And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was.
22 And the Lord said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.

God then gave Moses more rules to convey to the people: no golden or silver god images, build a certain kind of altar, perform a certain kind of animal sacrifice. He offered a great many other rules of his covenant that his people were required to follow if they wanted Yahweh’s help and to escape his wrath. The first section dealt with the treatment of servants. For instance:

Exodus 21:2 If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing.
3 If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married, then his wife shall go out with him.
4 If his master have given him a wife, and she have borne him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself.
5 And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free:
6 then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the doorpost; and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever.

Then there were some laws concerning violence and responsibility, some clearly cribbed from other ancient codes:

Exodus 21:12 He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death.

20 And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished.
21 Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money.

A lot of laws about restitution and oxen and thievery followed, then some laws about human relations:

Exodus 22:16 And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.
17 If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.
18 Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.
19 Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death.
20 He that sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyed.
21 Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
22 Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child.
23 If thou afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry;
24 and my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.
25 If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as a usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.
26 If thou at all take thy neighbor’s raiment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down:
27 for that is his covering only, it is his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.
28 Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people.
29 Thou shalt not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors. The firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me.
30 Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep: seven days it shall be with his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it me.

The laws went on and on, a lot of rules for behavior, including that they must let their fields sit fallow in the seventh year, and that they must rest on each seventh day, so that “thine ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed.”

Exodus 23:13 And in all things that I have said unto you be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth.

Then Yahweh urged the people to move on, saying he was sending an angel in front of them to show them the way, and would also send “hornets” before them, to drive out the peoples currently occupying the land God wanted his Israelites to have.

Exodus 23:20 Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared.
21 Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him.
22 But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries.
23 For mine angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Per’izzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jeb’usites; and I will cut them off.
24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images.
25 And ye shall serve the Lord your God, and he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee.
26 There shall nothing cast their young, nor be barren, in thy land: the number of thy days I will fulfill.
27 I will send my fear before thee, and will destroy all the people to whom thou shalt come; and I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto thee.
28 And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.
29 I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee.
30 By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land.
31 And I will set thy bounds from the Red sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before thee.
32 Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods.
33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be a snare unto thee.

Yahweh told Moses to bring some influential people closer, so as to see him, but not too close.

Exodus 24:9 Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abi’hu, and seventy of the elders of Israel;
10 and they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness.

The New American Standard Bible (©1995) translates verse 10 as “and they saw the God of Israel; and under His feet there appeared to be a pavement of sapphire, as clear as the sky itself.” Moses was told to come up to Yahweh “into the mount” to collect some stone tables (tablets):

Exodus 24:12 And the Lord said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them.

15 And Moses went up into the mount, and a cloud covered the mount.
16 And the glory of the Lord abode upon mount Si’nai, and the cloud covered it six days: and the seventh day he called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud.
17 And the sight of the glory of the Lord was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel.
18 And Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and gat him up into the mount: and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights.

It isn’t clear from these verses whether Moses spent six days hanging around waiting to be invited in, or whether he made two visits “into the mount,” one of seven days and one of forty days.

The people got tired of waiting for Moses to come down from the mount, and they asked Aaron to make them some gods they could believe in. They were used to worshipping idols, and this invisible god thing made them nervous. So Aaron made a golden calf and built an altar in front of it and made a sacrifice. He told the Israelites that, “These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.” The he informed them they’d have a “feast to the Lord” the next day. He seemed to understand that they needed a representation of their god that they could see, and in fact all the people’s grumblings ceased as they enjoyed the festival day.

But Yahweh had been watching what they were up to, and he’d had enough. He was ready to destroy the Israelites:

Exodus 32:9 And the LORD said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked [haughty and stubborn] people:
10 now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of thee a great nation.

So, Yahweh suggested to Moses that he wanted to just wipe out this failed experiment and start over with Moses as the father of “a great nation.” But Moses talked him out of it, reminding Yahweh that the Egyptians would be pleased if he destroyed the Hebrews, and that Yahweh had promised Abraham, Isaac, and Israel there would be a promised land for their descendants.

Finally, Moses came down from the mount carrying two tablets containing the ten commandments and the covenant:

Exodus 32:15 And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand: the tables were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written.
16 And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables.

As Moses approached the camp, he heard the sound of singing; then he saw the calf and the dancing, and he threw the tablets out of his hands “and brake them beneath the mount.” In those days, a covenant that was no longer in effect would be literally broken (being written in stone or ceramic), so Moses was just stating the obvious. [Earlier the people had agreed to follow the covenant.]

Then he did something really interesting:

Exodus 32:20 And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strewed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it.

[Musings about the ‘white powder of gold’.]

Moses was irritated with Aaron, but let him off lightly. On the other hand, when Moses noticed “the people were naked,” all hell broke loose.

Exodus 32:25 And when Moses saw that the people were naked, (for Aaron had made them naked unto their shame among their enemies,)
26 then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, Who is on the LORD’s side? let him come unto me. And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him.
27 And he said unto them, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Put every man his sword by his side, and go in and out from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbor.
28 And the children of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men.
29 For Moses had said, Consecrate yourselves today to the LORD, even every man upon his son, and upon his brother; that he may bestow upon you a blessing this day.

To summarize, Moses asked who was on the side of the god Yahweh. The male members of the tribe of Levi (who were charged with the Hebrews’ priestly duties as opposed to the military duties the other 11 tribes took on) all came to stand by Moses. He told them that Yahweh had said they were to go to the camps of the various Hebrew tribes and each man was to kill his brother, his friend, and his neighbor. So they did, slaying about three thousand men. They did this like an entrance exam to be worthy of the favor of Yahweh.

The next day Moses went back up to the mount to see if he could “make an atonement for your sin.”

Exodus 32:32 Yet now, if you will forgive their sin–; and if not, blot me, I pray you, out of your book which you have written.

Yahweh explained he was going to blot sinners out of his book, period, and that Moses should get back down and lead the people towards Canaan. Yahweh was angry, and although “mine angel shall go before thee,” Yahweh went out of his way to make the journey difficult for the Israelites.

Exodus 32:34 Therefore now go, lead the people unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee: behold, mine Angel shall go before thee: nevertheless in the day when I visit I will visit their sin upon them.
35 And the LORD plagued the people, because they made the calf, which Aaron made.

Yahweh told Moses to tell the people that they were “stiffnecked” and he was going to “come up into the midst of thee in a moment, and consume thee” unless they took off their “ornaments,” which they did, by the mount.

Exodus 33:5 For the LORD had said unto Moses, Say unto the children of Israel, Ye are a stiffnecked people: I will come up into the midst of thee in a moment, and consume thee: therefore now put off thy ornaments from thee, that I may know what to do unto thee.
6 And the children of Israel stripped themselves of their ornaments by the mount Horeb.

The next day Moses went back up to the mount to see if he could “make an atonement for your sin.”

Yahweh told Moses to go hew another couple of stone tablets to the same specs as the first pair, now broken, and to meet him in the morning on the top of the mount.

Exodus 34:3 And no man shall come up with thee, neither let any man be seen throughout all the mount; neither let the flocks nor herds feed before that mount.
4 And he hewed two tables of stone like unto the first; and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto mount Si’nai, as the LORD had commanded him, and took in his hand the two tables of stone.
5 And the LORD descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD.
6 And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD….

10 And he said, Behold, I make a covenant: before all thy people I will do marvels, such as have not been done in all the earth, nor in any nation: and all the people among which thou art shall see the work of the LORD: for it is a terrible thing that I will do with thee.

11 Observe thou that which I command thee this day: behold, I drive out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Per’izzite, and the Hivite, and the Jeb’usite.
12 Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest it be for a snare in the midst of thee:
13 but ye shall destroy their altars, break their images, and cut down their groves: Deut. 16.21
14 for thou shalt worship no other god: for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God.

Moses stayed on the mount with Yahweh for 40 days and 40 nights, during which time he wrote on the tablet the 10 commandments plus the covenant, a long list of rules — for instance, keep the sabbath, undertake thrice-yearly pilgrimages, and do “not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven.”

Exodus 34:27 And the LORD said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel.
28 And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.
29 And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses’ hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him.
30 And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come nigh him.
31 And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him: and Moses talked with them.
32 And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh: and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai.
33 And till Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face.
34 But when Moses went in before the LORD to speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out. And he came out, and spake unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded.
35 And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’ face shone: and Moses put the veil upon his face again, until he went in to speak with him.

Yahweh dictated to Moses the kinds of offerings the people were required to make to him, and said they must use those offerings to make him a sanctuary so that he “may dwell among them.” See the ark of the Covenant.

Notes:

Circumcision
Joshua 5: Gilgal circumcisions
Jesus says no in gospel of Thomas

The First Circumcision,
Zipporah at the inn
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zipporah
“After all the men in Egypt who had sought his death had died, God commanded Moses to return to Egypt. Moses took his wife and sons and started his journey back to Egypt. On the road, they stayed in an inn, where a mysterious and much-debated incident that features Zipporah took place. The Bible tells us that God came to kill Moses (Exodus 4:24-27). The passage contains four of the most difficult sentences in Biblical text.”

Exodus 4:24 And it came to pass by the way in the inn, that the LORD met him, and sought to kill him.
25 Then Zipporah took a sharp stone, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and cast it at his feet, and said, Surely a bloody husband art thou to me.
26 So he let him go: then she said, A bloody husband thou art, because of the circumcision.

Zipporah quickly circumcised Gershom with a sharp stone and touched Moses’ feet with it, saying “A bridegroom of blood because of the circumcision.” (Exodus 4:26.) One possible interpretation is that something (perhaps God, perhaps an agent of God) tries to kill Moses, until Zipporah carries out a circumcision on their son. Other interpretations suggest that it is their son, Gershom, who is attacked, and yet another is that Moses tries to kill his own son and only after Zipporah cuts the child’s foreskin, drawing blood and pain, does his anger subside.

“While Exodus is unambiguous about Yahweh (God) himself performing the attack on Moses, other texts make the attacker an “angel of the Lord”.

“The version in the Book of Jubilees (2nd century BC) is attributing the attack to Prince Mastema, a title that was another name for Satan:

… and what Prince Mastema desired to do with you when you returned to Egypt, on the way when you met him at the shelter. Did he not desire to kill you with all of his might and save the Egyptians from your hand because he saw that you were sent to execute judgment and vengeance upon the Egyptians? And I delivered you from his hand and you did the signs and wonders which you were sent to perform in Egypt. —Jubilees 48:2-4

“The Septuagint version subtly alters the text by translating the Tetragrammaton not as κύριος “the lord” but as ἄγγελος κυρίου “the angel of the lord”. “Angel” (ἄγγελος ) is the translation throughout the Septuagint of the Hebrew “mal’ak”, the term for the manifestation of Yahweh to humanity. (It is the mal’ak that speaks to Moses from the burning bush).”

“The standard interpretation of the passage is that Yahweh wants to kill Moses for neglecting the rite of circumcision of his son. Zipporah averts disaster by reacting quickly and hastily performing the rite, thus saving her husband from Yahweh’s anger.

“In Hebrew, the word “feet” is used as an euphemism for the word “genitals.” Very few translators chose to use the word “genitals” in their interpretation, so it’s not clear what Zipporah touched with the bloody foreskin.

“The Hebrew for “bridegroom of blood” written as “hatan dimim,” is derived from a Semitic root verb which means “perform marriage.” In the Arabic language this phrase is linked to Hebrew, but means “perform circumcision.” In ancient Akkadian language related to Arabic and Aramaic/Hebrew, this phrase means “to protect.”

“Zipporah was a Midian woman. Midian is present day Saudi Arabia where Arabic is spoken. However, in Zipporah‘s day, Akkadian was spoken. In the ancient Akkadian language, casting the foreskin meant “to protect.” So “You are a bridegroom of blood,” can also mean, “This blood will protect you.”[1]

“The details of the passage are unclear and subject to debate. One problem is that the text uses pronouns multiple times, without ever identifying which of the three individuals of Moses, Yahweh (the LORD), and Moses and Zipporah’s son, is being referred to by each instance. In particular, it is unclear whose feet, Yahweh’s, Moses’ or her son’s, Zipporah touches with the foreskin, and the meaning of “bloody bridegroom”.

Abraham_Took_Ishmael_with_All_the_Males_Born_in_His_House_and_Circumcised_Them

 

 

“Cleanliness” of animals in the Bible determines whether they can be eaten or not. Presumably, Noah took more of the clean animals onto the Ark (seven pairs as opposed to two) to serve as food.

Information re what was okay to eat is found in Leviticus and Deuteronomy. Animals were clean if they had cloven (split) hooves and they did not chew their cud. Water-dwelling creatures who did not have fins and scales were unclean. “Every creeping thing that flieth” was unclean, and so on.

These are the animals specifically mentioned in the Bible as unclean (although translations vary):

Bat
Camel
Chameleon
Coney (Hyrax)
Cormorant
Cuckow
Eagle
Ferret
Gier Eagle[4]
Glede
Great Owl[5]
Hare
Hawk
Heron
Kite
Lapwing
Little Owl
Lizard
Mole
Mouse
Night Hawk
Osprey
Ossifrage
Owl
Pelican
Raven
Snail
Stork
Swine
Tortoise
Vulture
Weasel

Here are animals that, while not specifically mentioned in the Bible as unclean, fulfill the requirements of uncleanliness.

Abalone
Alligator
Ape
Bear
Cat
Catfish
Cheetah
Clam
Cockatoo
Crow
Dog
Dolphin
Eel
Elephant
Fox
Gecko
Gibbon
Hedgehog
Horse
Hyena
Iguana
Jaguar
Kangaroo
Koala
Kookaburra
Leopard
Lion
Lobster
Lynx
Magpie
Parrot
Penguin
Prawns
Quokka
Quoll
Rhinoceros
Ratel
Raccoon
Rat
Scallop
Seal
Shark
Squid
Squirrel
Snake
Starfish
Skunk
Tasmanian Devil
Tiger
Turtle
Umbrella bird
Viper
Wallaby
Wolf
Wombat
Worm

cud |k_d|
noun
partly digested food returned from the first stomach of ruminants to the mouth for further chewing.
PHRASES
chew the cud 1 (of a ruminant animal) further chew partly digested food. 2 think or talk reflectively.
ORIGIN Old English cwidu, cudu, of Germanic origin; related to German Kitt ‘cement, putty’ and Swedish kåda ‘resin.’

Numbers 5:11 bitter water test
Numbers 15:32: Man stoned for gathering sticks on the Sabbath

Healing on the Sabbath

Luke 14:3 And Jesus answering spake unto the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath day?
4 And they held their peace. And he took him, and healed him, and let him go;
5 And answered them, saying, Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fallen into a pit, and will not straightway pull him out on the sabbath day?

Numbers 16:2: Yahweh destroys rebel Hebrews, leaders swallowed[?], supporters fired.

Numbers 20:12: Moses disobeys Yahweh, denied promised land. Deut 34:6: Moses is buried.

Yom kippur should not be atone, should be purge/purify, levit 16:1-28, htrtb p. 74
Noah’s covenant
Abram’s covenant
Isaac’s covenant
Moses’s covenant(s): 10 commandments #1 and #2
Each covenant from diff time period, w/diff “ideological perspective” p. 69-72 htrtb/brettler
Covenant (Code) Collection exodus 20:19-23:33

Priestly code and Holiness code collection of Leviticus 17-26 et al.
Ordination of Aaron and his sons
Priests

2 Chronicles 26:19 Then Uzziah was wroth, and had a censer in his hand to burn incense: and while he was wroth with the priests, the leprosy even rose up in his forehead before the priests in the house of the Lord, from beside the incense altar.
20 And Azariah the chief priest, and all the priests, looked upon him, and, behold, he was leprous in his forehead, and they thrust him out from thence; yea, himself hasted also to go out, because the Lord had smitten him.
21 And Uzziah the king was a leper unto the day of his death, and dwelt in a several house, being a leper; for he was cut off from the house of the Lord….

A Blasphemer Stoned [?]
Deuteronomic law collection, deut 12-26

Next: Exodus: Into the Wilderness with Moses

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